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Citation Styles

This guide lists some major styles that are commonly used by various subject disciplines.

Introduction to IEEE citation style

IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) citation style is commonly used in technical fields specifically in the electronic, electrical and computing science.


The in-text citations are presented as numbers placed within square brackets and inside the punctuation, eg.

Morgan and Brown [1] argue that ...

According to Smith et al. [2] ...

Early studies [3], [4] were unable to ...

For more details, see [3], [5], [7], [9].

Note: The in-text citations start from [1] and continue in an ascending order. If you are referring to a source which you have already cited in your text, you can use the previously given number,


A list of references containing details of all sources cited within the text is placed at the end of the work. For references in IEEE style, note that:

  1. The author’s name listed as first name (first initial) and last.
  2. The title of article, patent etc., in quotation marks.
  3. The title of journal or book in italics.

This guide provides a brief introduction to the IEEE style of referencing and citing. For detailed information on IEEE style, please refer to IEEE Reference Guide.

Reference list examples

Here are some referencing examples:

Material type Format Reference list
Books (Print)

[#] A.A. Author, Title of Published Book, xth ed. Place of Publication City: Publisher, Year.

[1]    D. W. Hart, Power Electronics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011.

[2]    World Health Organization, World Health Statistics: Monitoring Health for the SDGs. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2023.

Example of a book with edition statement:

[3]    S. Dovers and K. Hussey, Environment and Sustainability: A Policy Handbook, 2nd ed. Annandale, N.S.W.: The Federation Press, 2013.

[4]    L. G. Carpenter, Vacuum Technology: An Introduction, 2nd ed. Bristol: Adam Hilger, 1983.

Books (Online) [#] A.A. Author, Title of Published Book, xth ed., Place of Publication City: Publisher, Year. [Online]. Available: Source. [5]    C. Baldwin, The 10 Principles of Food Industry Sustainability. NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2015. [Online]. Available: Wiley Online Library.
Book with editor(s) [#]   X. Editor, Ed., Title of Book. City, State, Country: Publisher, Year. [6]   S. Khan and J. L. Mauri, Eds. Green Networking and Communications: ICT for Sustainability. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2014.
Book chapter [#] A.A. Author, "Title of chapter in book," in Title of Published Book, X. Editor, Ed., Place of Publication City: Publisher, Year. [7]    K. M. Wowk, "Paths to sustainable ocean resources," in Managing Oceans Environments in a Changing Climate: Sustainability and Economic Perspectives, K. J. Noone, U. R. Sumaila and R. J. Diaz, Eds., Burlington, Mass: Elsevier, 2013, pp. 301-348.

Conference Paper (for paper presented at a conference)

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of paper,” presented at the Abbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Abbrev. State, Country, Month and day(s), Year, Paper number. [8]    G. W. Juette and L. E. Zeffanella, “Radio noise currents on short sections on bundle conductors,” presented at the IEEE Summer Power Meeting, Dallas, TX, USA, Jun. 22–27, 1990, Paper 90 SM 690-0 PWRS.

[#] Author, Date, “Title of Dataset,” Source, doi: xxx.

[#] Author, Date, “Title of Dataset,” distributed by Publisher, URL (or doi:).

[9]   M. Awad, August 17, 2023, "Carbon Sequestration," IEEE Dataport, doi: 10.21227/fney-ys26.

[10]  S. Ansolabehere, M. Palmer, and A. Lee, January 20, 2014, “Precinct-Level Election Data,” distributed by Harvard Election Data Archive, doi: 10.7910/DVN/YN4TLR.

Journal article with single author [#] A. A. Author, “Title of article,” Abbrev. Title of Periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx, Abbrev. Month, Year, doi: xxx. [11]    A. A. Smirnova, "On the capability of birds for symbolization," Biol. Bull. Russ. Acad. Sci., vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 878-884, Dec. 2011, doi: 10.1134/s106235901109007x.
Journal article with three authors [#] A. A. Author, B. B. Author, and C. C. Author, “Title of article,” Abbrev. Title of Periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx, Abbrev. Month, Year, doi: xxx. [12]  J. Dumortier, M. Carriquiry, and A. Elobeid, "Interactions between U. S. electrification, climate change, and global agricultural markets," Environ. Resource Econ., vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 99-123, Aug. 2023, doi: 10.1007/s10640-022-00716-8.
Journal article with more than six authors [#] A. A. Author et al., “Title of article,” Abbrev. Title of Periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx, Abbrev. Month, Year, doi: xxx. [13]    M. Wagner et al., "Gala: An open-access platform for interactive learning with sustainability case studies," IEEE Trans. Learn., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 788-801, Dec. 2021, doi:10.1109/TLT.2022.3148723.
Lecture notes [#] A. A. Author. (Year). Title of lecture [Type of Medium]. Available: URL [14]    K. Wayne. (2005). Algorithm analysis [Online]. Available:
News article [#] A. A. Author, "Title of article," Title of Newspaper, page, Month date, Year. [15]    C. Tan, "New research institute to help Singapore tackle rising sea levels," The Straits Times, p. 1, Sep. 8, 2023. [Online]. Available: Nexis Uni.
Patents [#] A. A. Author, “Title of patent,” Country Patent xxx, Abbrev. Month, Day, Year. [16]    W. W. Black and A. Clavin, “Dipole augmented slot radiating element,” U.S. Patent 3594806, Jul. 1971.
Reports / Technical Reports

[#] A. A. Author, “Title of report,” Abbrev. Name of Co., City of Co., Abbrev. State, Country, Rep. xxx, Year.


[#] A. A. Author, “Title of report,” Company, City, State, Country, Rep. no., (optional: vol./ issue), Date. Accessed: Date. [Online]. Available: URL.

[17]    M. A. Brusberg and E. N. Clark, “Installation, operation, and data evaluation of an oblique-incidence ionosphere sounder system,” in “Radio Propagation Characteristics of the Washington-Honolulu Path,” Stanford Res. Inst., Stanford, CA, USA, Contract NOBSR-87615, Final Rep., Feb. 1995, vol. 1.

[18]   J. Beckman, M. Ivanic, and N. J. Nava, "Estimating market implications from corn and soybean yields under climate change in the United States," U. S. Dept. Agric. Econ. Res. Service, Rep. ERR-324, 2023.

[19]   D. Dussaux, A. Agnelli, and N. Es-Sadki, "Exploring new metrics to measure environmental innovation," OECD Environment Working Papers 221, Jul. 2023. Accessed: Oct. 10, 2023. [Online]. Available:

Technical standards

[#] Title of Standard, Standard number, Corporate author, location, date. [Online]. Available: URL.

[#] Title of Standard, Standard number, Year.

[20]   IEEE Standard for Environmental and Social Responsibility Assessment of Computers and Displays, IEEE Standard 1680.1, 2018.
Thesis / dissertation

[#] A. A. Author, "Title of thesis," M.S. thesis, Abbrev. Dept., Abbrev. Univ., City of Univ., Abbrev State, Country, Year. [Online]. Available: URL

[21]  M. M. Wiebe, "Engaging not for profit leadership: Community change in environmental sustainability," M.A. thesis, Royal Roads Univ., British Columbia, Canada, 2023. [Online]. Available:

[22]   W. K. Lau, "Behaviors maintaining perceptual continuity," Ph.D. dissertation, Nanyang Technol. Univ., Singapore, 2020. [Online]. Available:

Videos [#] Video Owner/Creator, Location (if available). Title of Video: In Initial Caps. (Release date). Accessed: Month Day, Year. [Online Video]. Available: URL [23]   TED. Sleep is Your Superpower. (Jun. 3, 2019). Accessed: Oct. 9, 2023. [Online Video]. Available:
Websites [#] A. A. Author. “Page Title.” Website Title. Accessed: Date. [Online]. Available: Web Address.

[24]    A. Nicolas. "Meet Herni Kurnia, a field medic making the Sumatran rain forest her hospital." WWF. Accessed: Oct. 9, 2023. [Online]. Available:

[25]    C. Tan. "Climate-proofing Singapore's coastlines: Some coastal protection projects." The Straits Times. Accessed: Oct. 9, 2023. [Online]. Available:


Additional resources

For detailed information on IEEE style, please refer to the following online guide and resources: