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Citation Styles

This guide lists some major styles that are commonly used by various subject disciplines.

Introduction to Modern Language Association

MLA (Modern Language Association) Style is widely used in the humanities, especially in literature.  The Modern Language Association of America (MLA) is the publisher of the MLA Style manual. Typically, components include in-text citations and the Works Cited list.  Do consult the Library's copy of the MLA Handbook or the online MLA Style Center for details.

In-text citation and references examples

If you use the MLA style, you must include a Works Cited page at the end of your research paper. The following examples are in the MLA Style (9th edition):


Works Cited Format

Book by one author

Meyer, Erin. The Culture Map: Breaking through the Invisible Boundaries of Global Business. PublicAffairs, 2014.


Edited book

Kirszner, Laurie G., and Stephen R. Mandell, editors. Literature: Reading, Reacting, Writing.  Compact 9th

     ed.*, Cengage Learning, 2017.


Scholarly ejournal in database

Hannah, Daniel K. “The Private Life, the Public Stage: Henry James in Recent Fiction.” Journal of Modern Literature, vol. 30,

      no. 3, 2007, pp. 70–94. JSTOR,  


Image artwork from a database

Katsushika Hokusai. The Great Wave off Kanagawa (Kanagawa oki nami ura), from the series

"Thirty-six  Views of Mount Fuji (Fugaku sanjurokkei)". 1826-1836. Artstor,


Article on a website

Yong, Clement. “Singapore’s Hawker Culture Added to Unesco List of Intangible Cultural Heritage.”

The Straits Times, 16 Dec. 2020. The Straits Times,



How to cite ChatGPT (MLA Style)

The MLA Style Blog entitled "How do I cite Generative AI in MLA Style", published on 17 March 2023, has some recommendations on how to cite ChatGPT.

Using the MLA Template:

MLA does not recommend treating the AI tool as an author.

Title of Source
Describe what was generated by the AI tool. This may involve including information about the prompt in the Title of Source element if you have not done so in the text. 

Title of Container
Use the Title of Container element to name the AI tool (e.g., ChatGPT).

Name the version of the AI tool as specifically as possible. For example, the examples in this post were developed using ChatGPT 3.5, which assigns a specific date to the version, so the Version element shows this version date.

Name the company that made the tool.

Give the date the content was generated.

Provide the unique URL that leads to the generated content, if available. Otherwise, give the general URL for the tool.



Works-Cited-List Entry:

“Describe the significance of the three witches in Shakespeare's Macbeth” prompt. ChatGPT, 3 Aug. 2023 version, OpenAI, 8 Aug. 2023,


In-Text Citation:

(“Describe the significance”)

The following shows how the in-text citation is included within the paragraph:

Readers are introduced to the three witches in Act 1 Scene 1 of Macbeth. Their presence and actions (“Describe the significance”) contributed to the development of the plot and characters and they also served as dramatic devices in the play.


Other things to note:

MLA also recommended acknowledging the AI tool whenever you used the tool.  It can be in the form of a note or within your text.  You also need to verify any sources or citations that the tool provides.

Check assignment instructions and clarify if and to what extent are AI tools permitted. Any permitted use of AI in assessment / assignment must be acknowledged appropriately.

Additional Resources