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Citation Styles

This guide lists some major styles that are commonly used by various subject disciplines.

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Citation style : an introduction

A citation style dictates the format of in-text citations and references, what information needs to be provided and how it is ordered. There are many citation styles, e.g., American Chemical Society (ACS), American Psychological Association (APA), Modern Language Association (MLA), Turabian, etc.

This Citation Styles guide provides an introduction to a few popular citation styles, namely American Psychological Association (APA) 7th, American Sociological Association (ASA), Chicago 17th edition (CMOS), IEEE and Vancouver.  

Click on each tab to learn more about the specific citation style and view examples of commonly used in-text citations and references.

A list of Additional resources are provided for each style. It contains links to books in the NTU Library collection, online styles manuals and other free online resources. Use them to find more examples. Alternatively, you may email us your queries at

Reference management software

NTU Library supports reference management software such as EndNote, Mendeley and Zotero. You may want to try them all to decide which software you prefer. Do take note that you would only need to use one to manage your referencing needs.

Please visit our Reference Management Software LibGuide for more details.