Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Citation Styles

This guide lists some major styles that are commonly used by various subject disciplines.

Introduction to the American Psychological Association (APA)

American Psychological Association (APA) is a citation style that is widely used in psychology and social sciences. There are two parts to referencing in APA:

  • In-text citations found within the text of the research paper. The APA style uses "author-date" style for its in-text citation.
  • List of references at the end of the paper.

This guide provides a brief introduction to the APA 7th style for referencing and citing. For more information about this style, please refer to Publication Manual of the APA or the APA Style website.

In-text citations

The table below provides a few examples of how in-text citations may be done based on the number of authors or type of authors. Refer to the Basics of In-Text Citations for more information. For more examples, please click here.

  • A work by a single author
Guidelines

Examples

The last name of the author and the year of publication are inserted in the text at the appropriate point. ......from theory on bounded rationality (Simon, 1945)

If the name of the author or the date appear as part of the narrative cite only missing information in parentheses.

Simon (1945) highlighted that....

In 1945, Simon highlighted that....

  • A work by two authors 
Guidelines

Examples

When a work has two authors, cite both authors each time the reference occurs in the text.

In parenthetical, material join the names with an ampersand (&).

.... as has been shown (Leiter & Maslach, 1998)

In narrative text, join the names with the word :an:  Include "and"  between authors' name in the text. ...as Leiter and Maslach (1998) demonstrated....
  • A work by multiple authors (three or more authors)
Guidelines Examples

When a work has three or more authors, cite only the first author's name, followed by et.al in each citation, including the first, and the year.

Note: "et al" means "and others"

(Kahneman et al., 1991)

Kahneman et al. (1991) found...........

  • Organisation / Corporate as an author
Guidelines Examples

The name of corporate authors are written out each time they appear in a text reference.

(Institute of Mental Health [IMH], 2021)

Reference list

The table below provides a few commonly used sources. For many other examples, please click here.

You may also refer to the Reference List: Basic Rules for more information.

Guidelines Examples
A book with single author Freud, S. (2003). The uncanny. New York: Penguin Books.
A book with multiple authors Ciccarelli, S.K., & White, J.K. (2009). Psychology (2nd ed.). N.J. Prentice Hall.
A book with an editor instead of a main author. Use "Eds." if there are two or more editors.

Sternberg, R. J. (Ed.). (2003) Psychologists defying the crowd: stories of those who battled the establishment and won. Washington: American Psychological Association.

A book chapter Davis, D. A. (2008). Freud, Jung, and psychoanalysis. In P. Young-Eisendrath (Ed.), The Cambridge companion to Jung (pp.39-55). New York: Cambridge University Press. 
A journal with single author Gallistel, C. R. (2009). The importance of providing the null. Psychological Review, 116(2), 439-454.
A journal with two or more authors Smith, E.R., & Collins, C. C. (2009). Contextualizing person perception: distributed social cognition. Psychological Review, 116(2), 343-364. Retrieved from PsychArticles, EBSCO.
Articles from newspapers or magazines 

Khalik, S. (2021, July 16). Half of hospitalised Covid-19 patients suffered at least one complication: UK study. The Straits Times. https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/health/half-of-hospitalised-covid-19-patients-suffered-at-least-one-complication-uk-study

Kluger, J. (2008, January 28) Why we love. Time, 171(4), 54-60.

Additional resources