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Citation Styles

This guide lists some major styles that are commonly used by various subject disciplines.

Introduction to American Sociological Association (ASA)

The American Sociological Association (ASA) citation style is widely used in the sociology field and is made up of two components:

  • In-text citation
  • Reference list 

This guide follows the rules set by American Sociological Association (ASA) Style Guide 6th edition and serves as a quick reference for students who are advised to use ASA style for their academic paper.

The ASA  Style Guide 6th edition is also intended for authors who are preparing manuscripts for publications in the ASA journals. You may consult this book for more detailed examples. 

In-text citations

The following table provides some examples of how in-text citations may be done using ASA style. 

Guidelines  Examples

If the author's name is in the essay sentence, include only the year of the sources in parentheses.


According to Neuendorf (2002), content analysis can be used to ......

Note: Neuendorf is the last name. 

If the author's name is not in the essay sentence, include the author's last name and the year. .... using manifest indicators (Neuendorf 2002).

If the publication date is unknown, include n.d. after the author's last name.

Note: "n.d." means "no date".

(Wilfred n.d.)

For sources by one or two authors, list their last names and the year.

The advantages of Web-based survey... (Connaway and Powell 2010).

For sources with three authors, list all authors' last names in the first in-text citation.

For subsequent in-text citations, use the author's  last name followed by "et al" and the year.

Note: "et al" means "and others"


In first citation: derived (David, Bagozzi, and Warshaw 1989).

In subsequent citations: 

.....(Davis et al 1989).

For sources with four or more authors, use the first author's last name followed by “et al.” and the year. (Briggs et al 2016)

Reference list

The following table provides some examples of how reference list may be done using ASA style. 

  • Books
Guidelines Examples
Single author Neueundorf, Kimberly A. 2002. The Content Analysis Guidebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Two authors Macionis, John J. and Ken Plummer. 2008. Sociology: A Global Introduction. 4th ed. Harlow, England: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Three or more authors Holland, John H., Keith J. Holyoak, Richard E. Nisbett, and Paul R. Thagard. 1986. Induction Processes of Inference, Learning, and Discovery. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Electronic resources 
Guidelines Examples
Newspaper articles Mahbubani, Kishore. 2010. "What are Singapore's Core Values? Straits Times, April 14. Retrieved October 5, 2012 (
  • Journal Articles 
Guidelines Examples
Single author Pekerti, Andre A. 2008. "The Independent Family-Centric Career: Career Perspective of the Overseas Chinese in Indonesia." Career Development Quarterly 56(4):362-77