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Citation Styles

This guide lists some major styles that are commonly used by various subject disciplines.

Introduction to The Chicago Manual of Style

This guide provides a brief summary of the rules of referencing sources for the 17th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style .

The Chicago Manual of Style 17th edition uses two types of format for referencing sources:

  • Author-Date system
  • Notes-Bibliography (NB) system

If you are unsure which format to use, you may ask your professor / supervisor.

For full details and more comprehensive examples, please consult this book.

Author-Date system

The Author-Date system is commonly used in the sciences and social sciences. Works that are cited in the text are in parentheses - author's last name and year of publication. Every in-text citation created will correspond to the entries in the reference list (found at the end of the document). These references are arrange alphabetically according to the authors' names. 

The samples below illustrates the Author-Date system. For many other examples, please click here.

Guidelines Examples
Books

Reference list

Hicks, Wynford, and Sally Adams. 2016. Writing for Journalists / Wynford Hicks with Sally Adams. [et al.]. 3rd ed. ed. Media Skills. London: New York.

Hosseini, Khaled. 2007. The Kite Runner / Khaled Hosseini. London: Bloomsbury.

In-text citations

(Hicks and Adams, 133-134)

(Hosseini 2007, 299–302)

Journals

Reference list

Cho, Insu, Heejun Park, and Joseph Kichul Kim. 2014. "The relationship between motivation and information sharing about products and services on Facebook." Behaviour & Information Technology 34 (9): 858-868. https://doi.org/10.1080/0144929x.2014.988177.

In-text citations

(Cho, Park, and Kichul 2014, 3-4)

Newspaper article

Reference list

Montague, Zach. 2021. "Biden Celebrates Progress Against Virus, but Acknowledges Hurdles Ahead." New York Times, July 4, 2021.
https://www.nytimes.com/2021/07/04/us/politics/biden-independence-day-coronavirus.html?smid=url-share

In-text citations

(Montague, 2021)

 

Notes-Bibliography system

The Notes-Bibliography (NB) system is usually used in the humanities (e.g., literature, history and the arts) to give authors a systematic way of referencing their work using footnotes, endnotes and assisted by the use of a bibliography. NB uses numbered footnotes in the text to lead readers to a shortened citation found at the end of the document. Each note and subscript number in the text correlates with each other and matches to a fuller citation in the list of bibliography.

The samples below illustrates the NB styles. For many other examples, please click here.

Guidelines Examples
Books

Notes
1. Khaled Hosseini, The Kite Runner (London: Bloomsbury, 2007), 99-100.

Bibliography entry

Hosseini, Khaled. The Kite Runner. London: Bloomsbury, 2007.

Journals

Notes

1. Jennifer Lantrip and Jacquelyn Ray, "Faculty Perceptions and Usage of OER at Oregon Community Colleges." Community College Journal of Research and Practice (2020) 7-8, https://doi.org/10.1080/10668926.2020.1838967.

Bibliography entry

Lantrip, Jennifer, and Jacquelyn Ray. "Faculty Perceptions and Usage of OER at Oregon Community Colleges." Community College Journal of Research and Practice  (2020): 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1080/10668926.2020.1838967.

Newspaper article

Notes

1. Cheryl Tan, "Steady queue at supermarkets, pharmacies for free oximeter on first day of collection," Straits Times, July 5, 2021, https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/steady-queue-at-supermarkets-pharmacies-for-free-oximeter-on-first-day-of-collection.

Bibliography entry
Tan, Cheryl. "Steady queue at supermarkets, pharmacies for free oximeter on first day of collection." Straits Times, July 5, 2021. https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/steady-queue-at-supermarkets-pharmacies-for-free-oximeter-on-first-day-of-collection.

Additional resources